How Does an Electric Car Work?


20 October,2023


15 February,2024

understanding how does an electric car work

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    Looking for a new car? You can't miss the electric cars popping up everywhere. Electric cars are making a revolution in mobility as they run on electricity, which means no harmful emissions.


    But how electric car works? Unlike traditional cars, they don't have Internal Combustion Engines (ICE), but they use electric motors powered by batteries. Keep reading to find the magic behind these innovative and green vehicles.


    The Basics of Electric Cars

    Electric cars differ significantly from traditional fossil-fuel cars. Instead of using explosive combustion with petrol/diesel, electric cars use electrical energy stored in their batteries to power electric motors connected to the wheels. The electric cars have fewer moving parts compared to traditional fuel cars, and this reduces maintenance needs.


    Key Features and Components of All-Electric Cars

    An all-electric car has many key features and components that set it apart from traditional fossil-fueled cars. The electric cars are renowned for their simplicity, and their key components include:

    1. Battery pack: The heart of an electric car is its battery pack, which acts as the energy reservoir. This battery stores electrical energy and provides the necessary power to propel the vehicle's electric motor and other components.
    1. Charging Port: The charging port serves as a connection point for linking the electric car to an external power source. This port is for recharging the main battery pack.
    1. Electric engine or motor: The electric motor or engine is the workhorse of the electric car. It harnesses the stored electricity from the battery pack to drive the vehicle. Electric motors can be either DC (Direct Current) or AC (Alternating Current).
    1. Inverter: The inverter is responsible for converting DC power from the battery into the AC power required to drive the electric motor. The inverter also plays a role in controlling the motor's speed by adjusting the frequency of the AC current.
    1. Transmission: The transmission, or gearbox, transfers mechanical energy from the electric motor to the wheels. Unlike traditional vehicles, electric cars have automatic transmissions with a simplified gear arrangement.
    1. Thermal System (Cooling): To ensure optimal performance and longevity, electric vehicles use thermal systems for cooling. This system is responsible for maintaining the right operating temperature range for various components.
    1. Power Electronics Controller (PEC): The Power Electronics Controller (PEC) acts as a manager for the flow of electrical energy originating from the battery pack. This controller has an important role in regulating both power and torque output from the electric motor.
    1. Auxiliary Battery: Similar to traditional petrol or diesel cars, electric cars have auxiliary batteries. This battery powers various functions, such as lights, the horn, accessories, and other vehicle components.
    1. Controller: The controller acts as the vehicle's central intelligence and controls various important parameters. It plays an important role in managing the charging process by using the data from the battery to control the charge rate.

    How Does an Electric Car Work?

    Electric cars operate by using the stored energy in a battery to power one or more electric motors to move the vehicle. In comparison to fossil-fuel cars, the electric car mechanism is simpler, featuring fewer moving parts. The motors make use of the energy generated by passing an electric current through a magnetic field.


    Most electric cars don't need a gearbox, so there is no need for a clutch pedal. Instead, they drive much like automatic vehicles, even though they are technically different.


    One noticeable characteristic of electric cars is that they are nearly silent. Unlike traditional engines, electric motors produce minimal noise, which gives a quiet driving experience. While this may feel unusual at first, drivers quickly adapt to it.


    The major advantage of electric motors is regenerative braking. When you release the throttle to slow down, these motors can be reversed, converting kinetic energy into recycled electricity. This not only slows down the vehicle without using the brake pedal but also replenishes the battery, providing a small boost in driving range.


    How Does an Electric Car Engine Work?

    In an electric car, the electric motor is equivalent to the traditional engine, which is usually an AC motor. When you press the accelerator pedal, the Power Electronics Controller (PEC) takes charge of regulating the flow of electrical energy to the motor.


    The amount of current supplied to the motor depends upon your input on the accelerator pedal, more pressure results in a higher current. Once the motor gets this electrical energy, it sets its rotors into motion, initiating the mechanical energy generation.


    As the motor produces mechanical energy, it supplies rotational force to the transmission or gears, effectively moving the vehicle forward. This process is different from traditional fossil-fuel cars, as it relies on the conversion of electrical energy into mechanical power, which would result in a smoother and quieter functioning.



    Now, you might have got the answer to how electric car works. Electric cars offer a unique, eco-friendly alternative to traditional vehicles, with zero tailpipe emissions. For individuals considering the purchase of an electric car, it is necessary to buy appropriate insurance coverage for the electric cars. Shriram General Insurance provides Comprehensive and Third-Party insurance for electric cars, and these insurance plans are available for purchase online.



    1. Why EVs are considered as Zero-Emission Vehicles?

    Electric vehicles are called zero-emission vehicles due to their absence of tailpipe emissions, which is in contrast to petrol or diesel-powered vehicles.

    1. Do electric cars need maintenance?

    Yes, similar to regular vehicles, electric cars need maintenance. For instance, brakes, tires, and other systems need occasional inspection and replacement.

    1. Is it possible for electric car batteries to undergo degradation?

    Yes, electric car batteries degrade gradually, and it would result in reduced range. Advanced electric cars use modern technology to minimize this degradation.

    1. How much time will it take for an electric car to charge?

    Charging time varies based on factors like station, battery capacity, and current flow rate. Full charge duration depends on the vehicle and its conditions.

    1. Do electric cars need insurance?

    Motor vehicle regulations mandate third-party liability insurance for electric cars, but buying comprehensive coverage provides additional protection for electric cars.

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